Dwarfism in people is not anything to be embarrassed about. There is no cure for the skeletal one but some hormonal injections may cure other types
You may come across people who have a shirt stature. They can be shorter than 4 10 inches. They maybe perfect mentally and can function like any other person. The major reason of this is genetics. If both the parents have average height, the tendency is more that the child will have short stature too. Achondroplasia is this condition.
The person has normal intelligence and fulfilling lives. They are not incapable of any mental or physical activity. They can work and study and also marry. They may have children who have normal height. But because of their gene mutation, their babies may be short also. So, there should be no discrimination between them and others.
Dwarfism is because of the mutation of the sperm cells or the egg and sometimes the both of them. These genetic changes are the main culprits for this situation. The reason for such mutation is not clear yet but mostly they are contributed to the abnormalities in the cells or the nucleus of the cell in the child and that of the parents.
Genetic counselor may be able to advise you regarding this. The change in the cells is not preventable and this may happen anytime during the pregnancy. This can also result from hormonal and metabolic disorders. In the childhood this can affect the kid and lead to dwarfism. Issues in the pituitary gland that relates to the metabolism and growth may result in this.
Chromosomal abnormalities and absorptive problem wherein the body is not able to retain or use the nutrients in the food can also lead to some deficiency. This hampers the growth of the body and makes dwarfism to happen. Kidney and liver diseases can also be a minor factor in this. Skeletal dysplasias make the bone to have an abnormal growth and one may have a short trunk or limb structure.
Some other reasons
Mutation of the gene FGFR3 in the child can produce some changes in the cell. This can exist in parent who has achondroplasia. The head of the person can be large and a flat bridge nose. Short fingers and hands with less muscle tone are possible. The forehead may be prominent and the legs or the upper body can be shorter than each other.
Diastrophic dysplasia leads to short limb formation and can be associated with clubfeet, cleft palate, cauliflower shaped ears and short claves and forearms. This is the mesomelic shortening. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasias are a group of different short upper body part skeletal condition that affects many people. The chest may be of a barrel shape.
The signs can be some delayed development in the motor skills. Hearing loss and ear infection chances may increase and there will be significant weight issues. The spine may curve and the legs may bow out. Pain in the lower back and numbness in the leg may occur. Number of tooth in the jaw may increase. Due to small chest, breathing problem may happen.