Duane syndrome is an eye disorder in its movements and is congenital. This can cause a lot of issues concerned with sight
In most of the cases, Duane syndrome is generally diagnosed by the age of 10 years. This is an eye movement problem wherein the patient is not able to move the eye upwards, as it happens in normal person. There is a weird convergence and divergence in both eyeballs, which can lead to lot of issues. This disorder is congenital and hence rare.
In lay man’s terms, there are some specific muscles in the eye that contract and extend when necessary and in Duane syndrome there are abnormalities in such muscles and they do not contract when they actually should and vice versa. In people suffering from Duane syndrome, there is an absence of eye movement towards the ears as well as there is a lack of ability in moving the eyes inwards that is towards the nose.
In normal human beings there are a set of six muscles that are towards the exterior of the eye wall that control our eye movement. The command for these movements is transferred from the cranial nerves to our brain. There are four of these muscles that let the eye move up and down while the medial rectus muscle helps the eye to move in and the lateral rectus helps in moving the eye ball towards the exterior.
This condition affects in the pregnancy period in the sixth week when the cranial nerve that commands the lateral rectus muscle does not form properly. This is seen in the sixth cranial nerve and hence the issue is not in the basic eye muscle but the nerve that really transmits the signal to the brain. The medial rectus which is controlled by the third cranial nerve is also affected which causes Duane syndrome.
Duane syndrome results in abnormalities in vision wherein the person affected has to turn the face to the side or other direction to maintain a regular image. Sometimes retraction of the eye socket occurs which makes the eye seem more narrow. This syndrome can affect either one eye or both the eyes. Generally, the condition is more in one of the eyes majorly.
One may get treated and rectify this syndrome with occlusion or refractive treatment. But this syndrome cannot be totally rectified as no one can replace the absent cranial nerve again. But people with conditions of non maintenance of binocularity have to go through surgery to improve their posture to have a normal eye sight as much as possible.