A cephalic disorder, Anencephaly causes absence of a certain portion of the skull, brain or the scalp due to defect of neural tube
Once a child is between the 23rd to the 26th day of developing in mother’s womb, Anencephaly may occur due to a major defect in the neural tube which happens to because the end of this tube does not close in the head. Most often, there is a loss of the forebrain in the children suffering from this birth disorder.
The forebrain contains cerebral hemispheres which includes neocortex which results normally in high cognition. This genetic disorder in children leads to death at birth itself but however there are some exceptions. The signs of this condition can be conferred if the baby is unconscious, deaf or blind and inability to sense any pain. There are deformities in the structure of face and defect in the system of heart.
Although some children with anencephaly have a brain stem while birth, there is a functioning absence of cerebrum which permanently regulates out the option of coming to consciousness or the reflex actions of breathing and reaction to sound and touch which may or may not be present. There may be no skull present just a soft part covering the top of the baby’s head may be seen.
Women who have insulin diabetes and epilepsy are at a higher risk of giving birth to a child suffering from Anencephaly. Studies indicate that the inducement of folic acid in the woman’s diet may reduce the chances of this disorder while pregnancy and birth. If a woman is exposed to toxic elements like lead, mercury, chromium and nickel may be also be at a risk of having a baby with Anencephaly.
Some research has indicated that there might be certain other genetic mutations like ciliopathies the cell structure of the cilia has a defect in the human form of cellular body. However if a child is suffering from Anencephaly then a prior ultrasound at the time of progressing pregnancy will lead into its diagnosis. A detailed test of this kind of the fetus can give a greater insight in the defect of neural tube.
There is no sure or treatment for the children born with Anencephaly. This leads to death at birth and many mothers therefore abort such fetuses before birth. Even if the baby survives the initial birth, it may not last for many days or hours due to cardiac arrest. Artificial ventilation is the only way to stop death before the infant dies naturally with the nature’s course.